Labor theory of value example
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Debunk: Arguments Against The Labor Theory Of Value ft. Ben Burgis (TMBS 102)
The Labour Theory of Value and the Concept of Exploitation
M ore than a century after his death, Karl Marx remains one of the most controversial figures in the Western world. His relentless criticism of capitalism and his corresponding promise of an inevitable, harmonious socialist future inspired a revolution of global proportions. It seemed that—with the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the spread of communism throughout Eastern Europe—the Marxist dream had firmly taken root during the first half of the twentieth century. That dream collapsed before the century had ended. The people of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, and the USSR rejected Marxist ideology and entered a remarkable transition toward private property rights and the market-exchange system, one that is still occurring. Which aspects of Marxism created such a powerful revolutionary force?
Solidarity , by Ralph Chaplin to the tune of Battle Hymn of the Republic This essay shows that the relationship between the labour theory of value and the concept of exploitation is one of mutual irrelevance. The labour theory of value is not a suitable basis for the charge of exploitation laid against capitalism by Marxists, and the real foundation of that charge is something much simpler which, for reasons to be stated, is widely confused with the labour theory of value. I begin with a short exposition of the labour theory of value as we find it in Capital Volume 1. Differences between Volume 1 and later parts of Capital will be adverted to later. What follows is one way of presenting the first few pages of Volume 1 of Capital. Having completed the presentation, I shall describe a different way, which I do not think is right.
Here is an example of how the labor theory of value works: A worker in a factory is given $30 worth of material, and after working 3 hours.
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The "magic" of the marketplace
It is fashionable these days for bourgeois economists and sociologists to refute the dialectical materialist method of analysis developed by Karl Marx. One of the basic ideas of Karl Marx that is constantly being denied by the bourgeois is his theory of value. This is understandable because from this very theory flow all the other conclusions of Marx, in particular that of the need to overthrow capitalism if we are to put to an end to all the contradictions of this unjust system which condemns millions of human beings to abject poverty, mass unemployment, periodic economic crises and wars. In this article divided into two parts Mick Brooks, using up to date facts and figures, shows how the Marxist Labour Theory of Value is still valid today. Every child knows, too, that the masses of products corresponding to the different needs required different and quantitatively determined masses of the total labour of society.
The labor theory of value LTV is a heterodox theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it. LTV is usually associated with Marxian economics , though it also appears in the theories of earlier classical liberal economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo and later also in anarchist economics. Smith saw the price of a commodity in terms of the labor that the purchaser must expend to buy it, which embodies the concept of how much labor a commodity, a tool for example, can save the purchaser. The LTV is central to Marxist theory, which holds that the working class is exploited under capitalism, and dissociates price and value. Marx did not refer to his own theory of value as a "labour theory of value".
The labor theory of value LTV was an early attempt by economists to explain why goods were exchanged for certain relative prices on the market. It suggested that the value of a commodity could be measured objectively by the average number of labor hours necessary to produce it. The labor theory of value suggested that two commodities will trade for the same price if they embody the same amount of labor-time, or else they will exchange at a ratio fixed by the relative differences in the two labor-times. For instance, if it takes 10 hours to hunt a deer, and 20 hours to trap a beaver, then the exchange ratio would be two beavers for one deer. Since it was developed in the 18th century, the labor theory of value has fallen out of favor among most mainstream economists.