Which statement about aggression by women is true
Gender Roles Quotes (301 quotes)
Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones
Aggression is a word that we use every day to characterize the behavior of others and perhaps even of ourselves. We say that people are aggressive if they yell at or hit each other, if they cut off other cars in traffic, or even when they smash their fists on the table in frustration. But other harmful acts, such as the injuries that sports players receive during a rough game or the killing of enemy soldiers in a war might not be viewed by everyone as aggression. Because aggression is so difficult to define, social psychologists, judges, and politicians as well as many other people, including lawyers , have spent a great deal of time trying to determine what should and should not be considered aggression. Doing so forces us to make use of the processes of causal attribution to help us determine the reasons for the behavior of others. Because it involves the perception of intent, what looks like aggression from one point of view may not look that way from another, and the same harmful behavior may or may not be considered aggressive depending on its intent.
Aggressive behavior can cause physical or emotional harm to others. It may range from verbal abuse to physical abuse. It can also involve harming personal property. Aggressive behavior violates social boundaries. It can lead to breakdowns in your relationships.
The Role of Biology in Aggression
When we see so much violence around us every day, we might conclude that people have an innate tendency, or even an instinct, to be aggressive. Some well-known philosophers and psychologists have argued that this is the case. For instance, the philosopher Thomas Hobbes — took this view, arguing that humans are naturally evil and that only society could constrain their aggressive tendencies.
Males often view aggressive acts as an exercise in control over others, brought on by a challenge to their self-esteem or integrity. Research in Finland showed adolescent girls are much more likely to engage in indirect aggression than teenage boys. Girls receive more negative feedback during developmental years concerning direct, physical aggression. Greater intimacy of female social patterns leads to greater chance of sharing and passing along personal information. Females social maturity growth exceeds males growth, perhaps leading to greater reliance on indirect aggression earlier in life. Evolutionary Psychology states that all behavior is designed to perpetuate the continuance of the gene pool and ensure the survival of the species.
We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression e. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression.