Social change and development in sociology
Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective by Philip D. McMichaelIn this Third Edition of Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective, author Philip McMichael provides a narrative of how development came to be institutionalized as an international project, pursued by individual nation-states in the post-colonial era. This new edition has been updated and revised to incorporate the treatments of fundamentalism, terrorism, the AIDS crisis, and the commercialization of services via the World Trade Organization.
Development and Social Change is the first book to present students with a coherent explanation of how globalization took root in the public discourse and how globalization represents a shift away from development as a way to think about non-western societies. This is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students studying globalization, social development, and social change in Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology, and International Studies.
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What is Social Development? Social change incorporates public concerns in developing social policy and economic initiatives. Until relatively recently, social development was conceived in terms of a set of desirable results - higher incomes, longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality, more and better education etc. Recently emphasis has shifted from the results to the enabling conditions, strategies and public policies for achieving those results. But still little attention has been placed on the underlying social process of development that determines how society formulates, adopts, initiates, and organies; and few attempts have been made to formulate such a framework. However, there are some recognized theories and principles, which will be examined briefly.
Collective behavior and social movements are just two of the forces driving social change , which is the change in society created through social movements as well as external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations. Essentially, any disruptive shift in the status quo, be it intentional or random, human-caused or natural, can lead to social change. Below are some of the likely causes.
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Mod-01 Lec-31 Social change-II: Theories of social change
Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields. In the late 19th century, when evolution became the predominant model for understanding biological change, ideas of social change took on an evolutionary cast, and, though other models have refined modern notions of social change, evolution persists as an underlying principle. In the midth century, anthropologists borrowed from the linguistic theory of structuralism to elaborate an approach to social change called structural functionalism. This theory postulated the existence of certain basic institutions including kinship relations and division of labour that determine social behaviour. Because of their interrelated nature, a change in one institution will affect other institutions. Various theoretical schools emphasize different aspects of change.
Social change is the significant alteration of social structure and cultural patterns through time. Social structure refers to persistent networks of social relationships where interaction between people or groups has become routine and repetitive. Sociology began in the late 19th century as an attempt to understand the emergence of the modern world. The earliest sociological thinkers—August Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber—all tried to understand the human implications of two great transformations that produced the modern world: urbanization and industrialization. They shared a vision that the study of human societies and change could be understood in a general way, rather than as the accumulation of the accidents of history. Like other foci of study in sociology, the study of social change has macro and micro components, and they have waxed and waned in popularity over the course of the 20th century.