Douglas massey and nancy denton argued that
American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass by Douglas S. MasseyThis powerful and disturbing book clearly links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities.
American Apartheid shows how the black ghetto was created by whites during the first half of the twentieth century in order to isolate growing urban black populations. It goes on to show that, despite the Fair Housing Act of 1968, segregation is perpetuated today through an interlocking set of individual actions, institutional practices, and governmental policies. In some urban areas the degree of black segregation is so intense and occurs in so many dimensions simultaneously that it amounts to hypersegregation.
The authors demonstrate that this systematic segregation of African Americans leads inexorably to the creation of underclass communities during periods of economic downturn. Under conditions of extreme segregation, any increase in the overall rate of black poverty yields a marked increase in the geographic concentration of indigence and the deterioration of social and economic conditions in black communities.
As ghetto residents adapt to this increasingly harsh environment under a climate of racial isolation, they evolve attitudes, behaviors, and practices that further marginalize their neighborhoods and undermine their chances of success in mainstream American society. This book is a sober challenge to those who argue that race is of declining significance in the United States today.
Black Rage: A Contemporary Christian Conversation with Dr. Steven Moore
Despite a compelling theoretical rationale, the empirical tests of this proposition have been negative or mixed. This paper develops a formal decomposition model that expands the Massey model of how segregation, group poverty rates, and other spatial conditions combine to form concentrated poverty. The revised decomposition model allows for income effects on cross-race neighborhood residence and interactive combinations of multiple spatial conditions in the formation of concentrated poverty. Applying the model to data reveals that racial segregation and income segregation within race contribute importantly to poverty concentration, as Massey argued, but that almost equally important for poverty concentration is the disproportionate poverty of the non-group neighbors of blacks and Hispanics. The missing interaction Massey expected in empirical tests can be found with proper accounting for the factors in the expanded model.
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content., This powerful and disturbing book clearly links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities. American Apartheid shows how the black ghetto was created by whites during the first half of the twentieth century in order to isolate growing urban black populations.
Some even rationalize continued segregation among blacks as no different from other segregated ethnic enclaves such Little Italy of Manhattan or Polish Downtown in Chicago. This, however, is not the same as what is experienced by segregated black populations in the urban environment. We should not envision a desirable ethnic community that thrives on its cohesiveness and cultural heritage. The effects of concentrated poverty are vastly pervasive. Due to the high employment rates in segregated black communities, the prevalence of families and individuals living in poverty is high.
A frequently cited model of why segregation contributes to inequality is that segregation increases the level of contextual advantage of advantaged segregated groups and the level of contextual disadvantage of disadvantaged segregated groups. This paper provides a formal demographic model of this process. The model begins with two groups that differ along a dimension of average advantage and disadvantage, for instance, two racial groups that differ in their poverty rates. The model illustrates how the contextual advantages and disadvantages from segregation are affected by a series of demographic conditions: group relative size, group advantage-disadvantage rates, group effects on advantage-disadvantage rates of nongroup neighbors, and advantage-disadvantage effects on group contact. The paper outlines a series of eleven conclusions from the theoretical model and applies the theoretical model to understanding racial segregation effects on racial group neighborhood poverty contact in American cities.
For most of the past 30 years, arguments involving the plight of the urban underclass have tended to track along boringly predictable lines. This facile--and incomplete--analysis proved workable for both liberals and conservatives. Meanwhile, conservatives point to the personal and behavioral failures of those mired in poverty and excuse themselves from any involvement or culpability in creating the situation. In their haste to assign blame, however, sociologists and community activists, politicians and government leaders, journalists and business leaders have virtually ignored a solution that once held high promise for alleviating the poverty problem: residential integration. Sociologists Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. In Southern cities such as Charleston, New Orleans, and Savannah, black servants and laborers lived on alleys and side streets near the mansions of their white employers.