Science and civilization in china
Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 1: Introductory Orientations by Joseph NeedhamDr Joseph Needhams account of the Chinese achievement in science & technology will stand as one of the great works of our time. Its been acclaimed by specialists in both East & West & also by readers with wider & more general interests. The text, based on research of a high critical quality, is supported by many hundreds of illustrations & is imbued with a warm appreciation of China. Volume 1 is an introductory volume, in which Needham prepares his readers for the study of a whole human culture. He begins by examining the structure of the Chinese language; he reviews the geography of China & the long history of its people, & discusses the scientific contacts which have occurred throughout the centuries, between Europe & E. Asia.
The Contribution of Chinese Civilization in Science and Technology
History of science and technology in China
President Xi Jinping staked out China's role as a committed player to tackle the climate crisis and build an "ecological civilization. From permanent ice fields, to tropical forests and deserts, China's diverse ecosystems hold 15 percent of the world's vertebrates and 12 percent of its plants. The rapid development of resources, land utilization, and urbanization can have impacts on the wildlife habitat. We need to establish a nature protected area system as soon as possible to protect biodiversity and important habitats. Since China established its first nature reserve in , the number blossomed to over 12,, covering a total area just slightly larger than the US state of Alaska or the Australian state of Queensland. Although the protected areas account for 20 percent of China's land surface, it was ineffective. Researchers pointed out that the main problem is fragmented management.
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The contention that science is uniquely Western has never been presented as a thesis to be demonstrated historically--that is, stated explicitly, formulated rigorously, evaluated critically, and documented comprehensively. Instead, throughout much of the twentieth century, variants on this theme frequently appeared in panegyrics for Western civilization "Science. Instead they asserted a Great Divide between the imagined community the West and its Other. However, the historical evidence accompanying such claims related only to the uncontroversial half of the assertion--the existence of sciences in the West. The substantive half--the assertion of the absence of science in every other culture--rested on little more than the ignorance of the sciences of other cultures, mistaken for the ignorance of other cultures of science. The most important historical counterexample was China--research beginning in the s increasingly provided considerable evidence that there were in China many forms of knowledges and practices similar to those that have been labelled "science" in the West.
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