A main idea of multicultural feminism is that
Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? by Susan Moller OkinPolygamy, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, punishing women for being raped, differential access for men and women to health care and education, unequal rights of ownership, assembly, and political participation, unequal vulnerability to violence. These practices and conditions are standard in some parts of the world. Do demands for multiculturalism — and certain minority group rights in particular — make them more likely to continue and to spread to liberal democracies? Are there fundamental conflicts between our commitment to gender equity and our increasing desire to respect the customs of minority cultures or religions? In this book, the eminent feminist Susan Moller Okin and fifteen of the worlds leading thinkers about feminism and multiculturalism explore these unsettling questions in a provocative, passionate, and illuminating debate.
Okin opens by arguing that some group rights can, in fact, endanger women. She points, for example, to the French governments giving thousands of male immigrants special permission to bring multiple wives into the country, despite French laws against polygamy and the wives own bitter opposition to the practice. Okin argues that if we agree that women should not be disadvantaged because of their sex, we should not accept group rights that permit oppressive practices on the grounds that they are fundamental to minority cultures whose existence may otherwise be threatened.
In reply, some respondents reject Okins position outright, contending that her views are rooted in a moral universalism that is blind to cultural difference. Others quarrel with Okins focus on gender, or argue that we should be careful about which group rights we permit, but not reject the category of group rights altogether. Okin concludes with a rebuttal, clarifying, adjusting, and extending her original position. These incisive and accessible essays — expanded from their original publication in Boston Review and including four new contributions — are indispensable reading for anyone interested in one of the most contentious social and political issues today.
The diverse contributors, in addition to Okin, are Azizah al-Hibri, Abdullahi An-Naim, Homi Bhabha, Sander Gilman, Janet Halley, Bonnie Honig, Will Kymlicka, Martha Nussbaum, Bhikhu Parekh, Katha Pollitt, Robert Post, Joseph Raz, Saskia Sassen, Cass Sunstein, and Yael Tamir.
Double, Not Half. Reevaluating Cultural Identity - Nina Udagawa - [email protected]
Feminist Political Philosophy
Multiracial feminist theory is a feminist theory thought to have gained momentum in the s by feminist women of color. Women of color [ who? The activist work of WOC has been erased from the second wave movement. With a focus on race, multiracial feminism acknowledges, "the social construction of differently situated social groups and their varying degrees of advantages and power". A product, in part, of Chicana feminism , [ citation needed ] multiracial feminist theory covers a wide range of gender-based, racial and political discourses intended to further analyze the interlocking oppressions minorities, women, women of color and other oppressions individuals face. Having first gained steam in the s, multiracial feminism grew as a movement to challenge racist, classist, and sexist barriers not as separate, singular matters but as interlocking identities that make up both privilege and oppression.
Carolyn Zerbe Enns, Elizabeth Nutt Williams, and Ruth E. Fassinger
It highlights the activities, events, products, groups, and organizations that have contributed to feminist multicultural and social justice perspectives. The chapter chronicles the challenges of integrating multicultural and feminist perspectives and notes developments and changes with regard to a defining sex and gender; b conceptualizing the intersections of oppression, power, and privilege; c understanding complex and subtle forms of bias in the twenty-first century; d exploring research methods for studying complex intersections of multiple identities; and e clarifying concepts and structures that support feminist multicultural theory, ethics, and practice. Chapter themes provide a foundation for the contents of this handbook, which focus on contemporary frameworks for feminist multicultural counseling psychology; the contributions and experiences of diverse groups of women and persons with multiple social identities; major theory and practice areas in feminist multicultural counseling psychology; and advocacy, training, and social justice applications. Keywords: Herstory history , feminism , multiculturalism , social justice , counseling psychology. The title of this handbook underlines its major goal: the integration of multicultural and feminist perspectives in counseling psychology.
This assimilationist expectation is now often considered oppressive, and many Western countries are seeking to devise new policies that are more responsive to persistent cultural differences. The appropriate policies vary with context: Countries such as England with established churches or state supported religious education find it hard to resist demands to extend state support to minority religious schools; countries such as France with traditions of strictly secular public education struggle over whether the clothing required by minority religions may be worn in the public schools. But one issue recurs across all contexts, though it has gone virtually unnoticed in current debate: What should be done when the claims of minority cultures or religions clash with the norm of gender equality that is at least formally endorsed by liberal states however much they continue to violate it in their practice? In the late s, for example, a sharp public controversy erupted in France about whether Magrbin girls could attend school wearing the traditional Muslim headscarves regarded as proper attire for postpubescent young women. Staunch defenders of secular education lined up with some feminists and far-right nationalists against the practice; much of the old left supported the multiculturalist demands for flexibility and respect for diversity, accusing opponents of racism or cultural imperialism. At the very same time, however, the public was virtually silent about a problem of vastly greater importance to many French Arab and African immigrant women: polygamy.