King philip of spain spanish armada
Philip II Of Spain BooksPhilip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called the Prudent (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58). He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.
Known in Spain as Felipe el Prudente (Philip the Prudent), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression, the empire on which the sun never sets, was coined during Philips time to reflect the extent of his dominion.
During Philips reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. A devout Catholic, Philip is also known for organising a naval expedition against Protestant England in 1588, the Spanish Armada, which was unsuccessful, mostly due to storms and serious logistical problems.
Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive. The Ambassador went on to say He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious.
Decisive Spanish defeat   . Medina Sidonia was an aristocrat without naval command experience but was made commander by King Philip II. The aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas. English ships sailed from Plymouth to attack the Armada and were faster and more manoeuvrable than the larger Spanish Galleons, enabling them to fire on the Armada without loss as it sailed east off the south coast of England. The Armada anchored off Calais.
England and Spain had actually been allies for much of the 16th century. But that had changed by the s and relations had become outwardly hostile. Neither monarch particularly trusted the other. Philip II of Spain was unpopular in England as the former husband of Mary I, a champion of Catholicism and head of the most powerful country in Europe. Elizabeth was considered untrustworthy and a heretic by Philip.
During his reign, the Spanish kingdoms reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. Philip led a highly debt-leveraged regime , seeing state bankruptcies in , , , , and This policy was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in On 31 December Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville , with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League ; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists. He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in , with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and re-establishing Catholicism there. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.
Why did the Spanish Armada happen?
A term used to refer to former Muslims who converted, or were coerced into converting, to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its Mudejar population in the early 16th century. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, and remained firmly Roman Catholic. He was the king of Spain from to Philip was married four times and had children with three of his wives. All the marriages had important political implications, as they connected Philip, and thus Spain, with powerful European courts. The Spanish Empire was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate realms, each jealously guarding its own rights against those of the House of Habsburg.