Egyptian king of the dead
The Egyptian Book of the Dead by AnonymousThe Egyptian Books of the Dead is unquestionably one of the most influential books in all of history. Embodying a ritual to be performed for the dead, with detailed instructions for the behavior of the disembodied spirit in the Land of the Gods, it served as the most important repository of religious authority for some three thousand years. Chapters were carved on the pyramids of the ancient 5th Dynasty, texts were written in papyrus, and selections were painted on mummy cases well into the Christian Era. In a certain sense it stood behind all Egyptian civilization.
In the year 1888 Dr. E. Wallis Budge, then purchasing agent for the British Museum, followed rumors he heard of a spectacular archaeological find in Upper Egypt, and found in an 18th Dynasty tomb near Luxor the largest roll of papyrus I had ever seen, tied with a thick band of papyrus, and in a perfect state of preservation. It was a copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, written around 1500 B.C. for Ani, Royal Scribe of Thebes, Overseer of the Granaries of the Lords of Abydos, and Scribe of the Offerings of the Lords of Thebes.
The Papyrus of Ani, a full version of the Theban recension, is presented here by Dr. Budge, who later became perhaps the worlds most renowned Egyptologist. Reproduced in full are a clear copy of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, and interlinear transliteration of their sounds (as reconstructed), a word-for-word translation, and separately a complete smooth translation. All this is preceded by an introduction of more than 150 pages. As a result of this multiple apparatus the reader has a unique opportunity to savor all aspects of the Book of the Dead, or as it is otherwise known, the Book of the Great Awakening.
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T he ancient Egyptians' attitude towards death was influenced by their belief in immortality. They regarded death as a temporary interruption, rather than the cessation of life. To ensure the continuity of life after death , people paid homage to the gods, both during and after their life on earth. When they died, they were mummified so the soul would return to the body, giving it breath and life. Household equipment and food and drink were placed on offering tables outside the tomb's burial chamber to provide for the person's needs in the afterworld. Written funerary texts consisting of spells or prayers were also included to assist the dead on their way to the afterworld.
The Book of the Dead , which was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased, was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts , which were painted onto objects, not written on papyrus. Some of the spells included in the book were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. A number of the spells which make up the Book continued to be separately inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi , as the spells from which they originated always had been. There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration.
Osiris , also called Usir , one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt. The origin of Osiris is obscure; he was a local god of Busiris , in Lower Egypt , and may have been a personification of chthonic underworld fertility. By about bce , however, Osiris clearly played a double role: he was both a god of fertility and the embodiment of the dead and resurrected king. Osiris and Horus were thus father and son. The goddess Isis was the mother of the king and was thus the mother of Horus and consort of Osiris. The god Seth was considered the murderer of Osiris and adversary of Horus. According to the form of the myth reported by the Greek author Plutarch , Osiris was slain or drowned by Seth, who tore the corpse into 14 pieces and flung them over Egypt.
The post shows a body wrapped in brown fabric inside a wooden sarcophagus. Its age is approximately years… This body is now displayed in… the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. A reverse image search brings up a similar photo of the body, on the website Impressive. The photo shows a mummy of a woman — not a king — dated at to BCE and found in Thebes , an ancient Egyptian city on the Nile river some kilometres south of the Mediterranean sea. The mummy is held at the Vatican Museum in Rome, Italy. So, no. It was found on dry land, and is in a museum in Rome, not the Egyptian capital of Cairo.