What happened to the ottoman empire after the war

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what happened to the ottoman empire after the war

The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East by Eugene Rogan

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire was depleted of men and resources after years of war against Balkan nationalist and Italian forces. But in the aftermath of the assassination in Sarajevo, the powers of Europe were sliding inexorably toward war, and not even the Middle East could escape the vast and enduring consequences of one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The Great War spelled the end of the Ottomans, unleashing powerful forces that would forever change the face of the Middle East.

In The Fall of the Ottomans, award-winning historian Eugene Rogan brings the First World War and its immediate aftermath in the Middle East to vivid life, uncovering the often ignored story of the regions crucial role in the conflict. Bolstered by German money, arms, and military advisors, the Ottomans took on the Russian, British, and French forces, and tried to provoke Jihad against the Allies in their Muslim colonies. Unlike the static killing fields of the Western Front, the war in the Middle East was fast-moving and unpredictable, with the Turks inflicting decisive defeats on the Entente in Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Gaza before the tide of battle turned in the Allies favor. The great cities of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and, finally, Damascus fell to invading armies before the Ottomans agreed to an armistice in 1918.

The postwar settlement led to the partition of Ottoman lands between the victorious powers, and laid the groundwork for the ongoing conflicts that continue to plague the modern Arab world. A sweeping narrative of battles and political intrigue from Gallipoli to Arabia, The Fall of the Ottomans is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the Great War and the making of the modern Middle East.

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Ottoman Empire

The partitioning was planned in several agreements made by the Allied Powers early in the course of World War I , [1] notably the Sykes-Picot Agreement. As world war loomed, the Ottoman Empire sought protection but was rejected by Britain, France, and Russia , and finally formed the Ottoman—German Alliance. The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the rise in the Middle East of Western powers such as Britain and France and brought the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey. Resistance to the influence of these powers came from the Turkish national movement but did not become widespread in the post-Ottoman states until after World War II. The forcible carving out of nations like Iraq from three disparate provinces of the Ottoman empire , Palestine, and forcible division of Syria along communal lines is thought by many analysts to have been a part of the larger strategy of ensuring infighting in the middle east, thus necessitating the role of Western colonial powers at that time Britain, France and Italy as peace brokers and arms suppliers. The Turkish War of Independence forced the Western European powers to return to the negotiating table before the treaty could be ratified. One unresolved issue , the dispute between the Kingdom of Iraq and the Republic of Turkey over the former province of Mosul , was later negotiated under the League of Nations in

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Ottoman Empire , empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia Asia Minor that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Ottoman period spanned more than years and came to an end only in , when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East. At its height the empire encompassed most of southeastern Europe to the gates of Vienna , including present-day Hungary , the Balkan region, Greece , and parts of Ukraine ; portions of the Middle East now occupied by Iraq , Syria , Israel , and Egypt ; North Africa as far west as Algeria ; and large parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The Ottoman Empire was founded in Anatolia , the location of modern-day Turkey. This was enabled by the decline of the Seljuq dynasty, the previous rulers of Anatolia, who were suffering defeat from Mongol invasion.

The Empire was underdeveloped, with a primitive economy and a sparse population. It lacked the most vital communication and supply infrastructure which its army would desperately need in a state of war. These factors, combined with the incompetent conduct of war, diseases, famine, wholesale and poorly handled enforced migrations and intercommunal violence, contributed to both military and civilian losses. The Ottoman territories of Anatolia, Syria and Iraq, especially, suffered the heaviest civilian losses during the war. As is the case with most of the countries that fought in the First World War, the number of military and civilian losses of the Ottoman Empire still remains unclear. There has been a considerable amount of research and discussion regarding the military losses and their causes during the war. Therefore a scholarly consensus about the total number of military losses is partially achieved but one cannot say the same about the civilian losses.

Make sense of a disrupted world. Report a mispronounced word. The Ottoman empire had ruled for centuries over the lands from the Sahara to Persia but did not refer to them as part of a single region. Coined in the midth century, the phrase became popular only in the midth. It reflected the growing popularity of geopolitical thinking as well as the strategic anxieties of the rivalrous great powers, and its spread was a sign of growing European meddling in the destiny of the Arab-speaking peoples.


  1. Aurélie B. says:

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  2. Nicole S. says:

    Page 9 – Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, It was clear that the post- war Ottoman state would not even cover all of Anatolia. More Greek forces arrived in the following months, gradually extending their control deep into the west.

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