Crosby 14 steps to quality improvement

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crosby 14 steps to quality improvement

Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management by Philip B. Crosby

this is was my 1st book review :) it was a great experience and great days at AUS (THANKS FOR MY GREAT MENTOR DR. HOSSAM EL ZEBMELY)& here was my review:

The book is talking about 2 main principles
1-Hassle free organization is possible.
2-The principle of ZD.
3- The main obstacle to improvement is the stubbornness of management.
Philip uses analytical, chronological &descriptive approaches to reach his ideas.
To know how to eliminate hassle, we have 1st need to know what is meant by hassle & to recognize the organizations with hassle & know the causes of this hassle then to provide the cure.

Philip defined hassle as: the unnecessary difficulties or harassment placed into the path of someone trying to do reasonable thing.
He talks about the symptoms of any organization that has troubles:
1- The outgoing product or service normally contains deviations from the published, announced, or agreed-upon requirements
2- The company has an extensive field service or dealer network skilled in the work and resourceful corrective action to keep the customers satisfied
3- Management does not provide a clear performance standard or definition of quality, so the employees each develop their own
4- Management does not know the price of nonconformance
5- Management denies that it is the cause of the problem

One of the causes of hassle is demotivation which is may be due to:
- The thoughtless & unconcerned way they are dealt with.
- The performance review & dishonest evaluation.
- Expense accounts.
- Unnecessary meetings.

A “hassle” company is one in which management and employees are not on the same side
The hassle free company is one which has all employees are together and there are no sides

To dehassle forever, it is necessary to change the company’s culture, to eliminate the causes that produce nonconforming products and service
For an organization to go through the dehassling business which is a process & not a program; it should be vaccinated against can be provided with antibodies that will prevent hassle. Some of these antibodies are managerial actions & some are procedural.
To administer the vaccine continually to the corporation body requires a strategy that contains 3 distinct management actions:
1- Determination: evolves when the members of a management team decide that they have had enough & are not going to take it anymore. They recognize that their action is the only tool the will change the profile of the organization.
Organization Showing NOT much improvement has following characteristics:

Effort is called a program rather than a process (process – never finishes & requires constant attention).
All effort is aimed at the lower level of the organization.
Training material is prepared by the training function.
Management is impatient for results. Managers just lay back and wait for results. It brings everything to slowdown

Not enough to look & act determined. Subject we are being determined about has to be clear in the minds of all involved
The 4 absolutes of quality management:

1st absolute:
The definition of quality is conformance to requirements not as goodness & it is built on DRIFT (do it right 1st time) where it is the requirements.
Talking the requirements seriously is the 1st act in improvement.
Three basic tasks to be performed by Management here:
Establish requirements that employees are to meet
Supply whatever employees need to meet requirements
Spend all time encouraging and helping employees to meet those requirements

2nd absolute:
The system of quality is prevention not appraisal.
Appraisal (checking, inspection, testing, etc.) is always done after the fact &an expensive & unreliable way of getting quality.
‘Prevention’ is something we know how to do it if we understand our process.
Secret of prevention – ‘look at the process & identify opportunities for error’

3rd absolute:
Performance standard is ZD, not thats close enough.
Causes of Mistakes: Lack of knowledge & Lack of attention.
Lack of attention is attitude problem, which must be corrected by person himself through reappraisal of his moral values.
Error is function of importance that a person places on specific things.
People will perform to the standard they are given, provided they understand it.

4th absolute:

Measurement of quality is the ‘price of nonconformance’.
Main problem of quality as a management concern is that it is not taught in Management’s schools due to Quality is never looked at in financial terms the everything else is.

Cost of Quality divided into:
PONC – All expenses involved in doing things wrong {Represent 20% of sales in Manufacturing & 30% of operating costs in Service companies}.

POC – What’s necessary to spend to make things right, which includes quality functions, prevention effort, quality education. {Represents 3-4% of sales}.

2- Education: is the process of helping all employees have a common language, understand their individual roles in the improvement process & have the special knowledge available to handle antibody creation.

The overall educational aspect requires executive education, management education & employee education.
The entire education process can be summarized in the 6Cs comprehension, commitment, competence, communication, correction & continuance.

3- Implementation: is guiding the flow of improvement along the yellow brick road
The process of installing quality improvement is a journey that never ends & it is made up of 14 steps:
1. Management commitment. This requires a specific management policy on quality. Quality must be the first item on the agenda at every regular status meeting. The manager must carry a speech on quality in his head and deliver it at every opportunity.

Team Actions:
2. The quality improvement team. The purpose of the team is to guide the process and help it along.
3. Measurement. Is just a habit of seeing how we are going along? The real hassle begins when no one knows how well you are really doing.
4. Cost of quality. To determine the cost of quality, be sure you are measuring the same thing all the time, throughout the company. The tendency is for each area to try to limit its cost.
5. Quality awareness. Awareness must begin at the management level: When conformance to requirements becomes part of the lexicon of the company, then it begins to take effect. Must be adapted to the culture of the company & its not just making publications & promotions; its spreading information.
6. Corrective action.
Real purpose is to identify and eliminate problems forever.
Corrective action systems have to be based on:
Data that show what the problems are &
Analysis that show the causes of the problems

Team Executions:
7. Zero Defects planning: The ZD’s commitment represents a major step forward in the thrust and longevity of the Quality management process
8. Employee education
9. Zero Defects Day. Its a time to show all people face to face that management is serious.
10. Goal-setting. Measurement leads directly to goal setting. The ultimate goal, of course, is Zero Defects but intermediate goals are necessary to move you in that direction. Ideally, the group chooses the goals and follows its progress on a chart.
11. Error-cause removal. People simply state what problems they are having.
12. Recognition. Very few organizations recognize their good performers. The most valuable recognition comes as a result of peer judgment.
13. Quality councils. Quality professionals get together to learn from each other and to support the improvement process.
14. Do it all over again.
As quality improvement becomes more and more an enduring way of life, as it becomes the culture of the company, the process gains speed and permanence.
To drive his philosophy, Crosby supports his own concepts using an imaginary case study:
In A Quality Carol, Emory Spellman falls asleep on a bus. A spirit appears and takes him to see his deceased partner. The partner is repairing thousands of defective items that their company has made.
This is punishment...
For being the cause of the hassle other people had to live with. For not preventing these things by being interested in quality.
The apparition warns him:
Unless you change your ways of treating quality, you are going to wind up right next to the apparition, forever and ever, twenty-four hours a day. No time off, no visitors, no meetings ---- just all the problems you ever caused.
Predictably, three more visitors appear.
Quality Past is a former college professor who wants to retract something he had taught Emory. The misinformed lesson was to cut corners on quality.
Quality Present appears as a woman who tries to sell him on the quality vaccine. Failing in that, she brings Emorys customers to him through a television screen. One after another comes into view with a litany of complaints about the companys products and services.
When Quality Future enters, Emory finally sees the light. The final and most portentous visitor is a severe looking person carrying a briefcase and dressed in a black three-piece suit. He has just bought the company from a bankruptcy court.
Emory returns later in the book and applies Crosbys methods to avert that fate.

*some success stories:
Philip lists some organizations that did a great improvement in these aspects:
Cost of quality
Paper work
Data entry errors
Defect reductions
The concept of ZD has received criticism but has the positive site to it too.
Humans are not perfect and zero defects arent about perfection. It’s about every employees commitment and understanding that processes must constantly be improved, and that defective systems must be reworked and reorganized from the top down.
With a zero defects in mind, each defect is given great deal of attention and traced to its root cause, and each cause is prevented till we are sure that we have completely eliminated the problem.
Quality Guru Deming believed that slogans like Zero Defects are actually counterproductive and may deemphasize the culture and tools associated with continuous improvement.
Since Defects vary in size and severity, not all defects are bad. Some defect actually throw light on some process improvement never thought of before. Zero defects may also mean that all defects are bad and counterproductive if not explained well. It may not leave time for continuous improvement to occur.
Zero Defects has its advantages and disadvantages. It should be carefully evaluated given an industry or case. It may apply and produce outstanding results for some and it may be counterproductive for other cases.
At the end the ideas of the book are so interesting & stimulate thinking & however I didnt agree totally with the concept of ZD, I think the book contains a lot of useful facts & concepts so I recommend it.
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Published 18.10.2019

The Quality Gurus

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Philip B. Crosby

14 Steps to Establish Process Improvement

Keywords Industry Select Philip B. Crosby Other articles by this author. View comments Comments FAQ. Search Advanced. Crosby's 14 Steps to Improvement Abstract: In order to be successful, a company quality improvement effort must be well thought out and implemented according to plan over a long period of time. It requires management to stay at it constantly.

The 14 Steps of Crosby are meant to keep your quality improvement project on track. First and foremost, management must be committed to improving the quality in a company. This commitment must also be transparent to all employees so that proper attitudes towards a Zero Defect product or service line are modeled. Forming a quality improvement team is the second step to achieving total quality management. Search for team members who will model quality improvement commitment, and who are not already over-committed to other projects. The quality improvement team should be able to effectively commit themselves to improvement of quality. Before you can establish a plan for improving quality, you first have to know exactly where your products and services lie when it comes to conforming to requirements.

The 14 Steps to Quality Improvement are quality guru Philip Crosby’s recipe for long-term process improvement. Step 2: Quality Improvement Team. Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for the Zero Defects Program.
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What Are the 14 Steps of Crosby?

Crosby stresses motivation and planning. He achieved great fame by promoting his views regarding quality. He does not give importance statistical process control and several problem-solving techniques. According to him it is better to prevent quality rather than correction or detecting. He defines quality as.

Top management must communicate it has a zero defect strategyif it wants a quality improvement process. The primary action to accomplish this is to write and communicate a Quality Policy. In ISO all documentation comes from the philosophy in the quality policy. July 14, by Sherri 1 Comment. The 14 steps were develop by Mr. Philip Crosby and presented by Philip Crosby Associates.



  1. Yasmin M. says:

    Crosby Quality Management, Crossby 14 Steps, Quality is free Corsby

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